How to, Transcription

How to count GEMS in CLAN

Counting GEMs

If you wish to know how many of each GEM you have in your files, you can use the freq command.

This is what you do:

  1. Open the Command window
  2. Type freq
  3. File in> select the file or files you wish to analyze
  4. Tier > Include @BG:
  5. Done
  6. Tier > exclude speaker tiers
  7. Done
  8. The command should now look like this

freq @ +t@BG: -t*

  1. Run the command
  2. You will see that the output counts the tokens included in the @BG tiers:

4 act-patient

1 and

2 convergence

2 exam-modelling

1 medical-term

2 prefacing

3 repetition

1 safety-netting

6 transition


29 Total number of different item types used

65 Total number of items (tokens)

0.446 Type/Token ratio

Note: If you have not connected separate words in a phrase, it will count them as separate tokens. For example, a GEM named ‘extreme case’ will output as



To avoid this, use some linking symbol (‘-‘ or ‘_’) when naming the GEM.


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